Weill mylene

Directeur de recherche CNRS

Having a training in molecular biology and immunology, I first worked on the human immune repertoire at the Molecular Genetics Institute of Montpellier (IGMM). Since I integrated ISEM in 2000, I developed researches on mosquito adaptation. We seek to understand how changes in environmental selection pressures may affect the cost-benefit trade-offs of different types of genetic modifications (substitutions, heterogeneous duplications, amplifications). Mosquito resistance to insecticides is an excellent model of study because (1) selection pressures are known, sometimes quantifiable, (2) many resistance alleles are identified, and (3) we have developed molecular markers to track their evolutionary dynamics in natural populations. We follow the evolution of resistance of the mosquito Culex pipiens in Languedoc-Roussillon since more than 40 years. We also study C. pipiens and Aedes albopictus in different regions of the world and An. gambiae in West Africa. Our team is also studying the interactions between mosquitoes and Wolbachia, an intracellular bacteria which manipulates reproduction and is responsible for cytoplasmic incompatibility, a form of conditional sterility depending on the Wolbachia genome. We investigate the genetic and cytological determinisms of these incompatibilities and Wolbachia dynamics in natural populations. We also seek to evaluate Wolbachia impact on mosquito vector capacity. Our basic research on adaptive pathways of resistance alleles provides important information for the management of resistance to chemical insecticides. Our studies on Wolbachia provide a model for the study of host / parasite interactions and constitute the indispensable basis for developing innovative methods of mosquito vector control.


102. Bonneau M, Atyame C.M, Beji M, Justy F, Cohen-Gonsaud M, Sicard M, Weill M (2018). Culex pipiens crossing type diversity is governed by an amplified and polymorphic operon of Wolbachia. Nature Communications. 9: 319 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-02749-w. 101. Bigot D, Atyame C.M, Weill M, Justy F, Herniou E. A, Gayral P (2018). Discovery of Culex pipiens associated tunisia virus: a new ssRNA (+) virus representing a new insect associated virus family. Virus Evolution. 4 (1), vex040. 100. Milesi P, Assogba B. S, Atyame C. M, Pocquet N, Berthomieu A, Unal S, Makoundou P, Weill M, Labbé P. (2017) The evolutionary fate of heterogeneous gene duplications: a precarious overdominant equilibrium between environment, sublethality and complementation. Mol Ecol, in press, DOI 10.1111/mec.14463. 99. Milesi P, Weill M, Lenormand T, Labbé P (2017). Heterogeneous gene duplications can be adaptive because they permanently associate overdominant alleles. Evolution Letters. 1(3) : 169-180. 98. Grigoraki L, Pipini D, Labbé P, Chaskopoulou A, Weill M, Vontas J (2017). Carboxylesterase gene amplifications associated with insecticide resistance in Aedes albopictus: Geographical distribution and evolutionary origin. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 11(4):e0005533. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005533. 97. Dumas E, Atyame CM, Malcolm CA, Le Goff G, Unal S, Makoundou P, Pasteur N, Weill M, Duron O, (2016). Molecular data reveal a cryptic species within the Culex pipiens mosquito complex. Insect Mol Biol. 25 (6), 800-809, doi: 10.1111/imb.12264. 96. Milesi P, Lenormand T, Lagneau C, Weill M, Labbé P, (2016). Relating fitness to long-term environmental variations in natura. Mol Ecol. 25(21):5483-5499. doi: 10.1111/mec.1385595. 95. Atyame CM, Labbe P, Lebon C, Weill M, Moretti R, Marini F, Gouagna LC, Calvitti M, Tortosa P, (2016). Comparison of Irradiation and Wolbachia Based Approaches for Sterile-Male Strategies Targeting Aedes albopictus. PLoS One. 11(1), e0146834, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146834. 94. Assogba BS, Milesi P, Djogbénou LS, Berthomieu A, Makoundou P, Baba-Moussa LS, Fiston-Lavier AS, Belkhir K, Labbé P, Weill M (2016). The ace-1 Locus Is Amplified in All Resistant Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes: Fitness Consequences of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Duplications. Plos Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2000618. 93. Alout H, Labbé P, Berthomieu A, Makoundou P, Fort P, Pasteur N, Weill M, (2016). High chlorpyrifos resistance in Culex pipiens mosquitoes: strong synergy between resistance genes. Heredity. doi: 10.1038/hdy. 92. Assogba BS, Djogbénou LS, Milesi P, Berthomieu A, Perez J, Ayala D, Chandre F, Makoutodé M, Labbé P, Weill M, (2015). An ace-1 gene duplication resorbs the fitness cost associated with resistance in Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria mosquito. Sci Rep. 5;5:14529. doi: 10.1038/srep14529. PMID: 26434951 91. Grigoraki L, Lagnel J, Kioulos I, Kampouraki A, Morou E, Labbé P, Weill M, Vontas J, (2015). Transcriptome Profiling and Genetic Study Reveal Amplified Carboxylesterase Genes Implicated in Temephos Resistance, in the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 22;9(5):e0003771. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003771. 90. Atyame CM, Labbé P, Rousset F, Beji M, Makoundou P, Duron O, Dumas E, Pasteur N, Bouattour A, Fort P, Weill M, (2015). Stable coexistence of incompatible Wolbachia along a narrow contact zone in mosquito field populations. Mol Ecol. 24(2):508-521. 89. Atyame CM, Cattel J, Lebon C, Flores O, Dehecq JS, Weill M, Gouagna LC, Tortosa P, (2015). Wolbachia-Based Population Control Strategy Targeting Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes Proves Efficient under Semi-Field Conditions. PLoS One. 13;10(3):e0119288. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119288. 88. Labbé P, Milesi P, Yebakima A, Pasteur N, Weill M, Lenormand T, (2014) Gene-dosage effects on fitness in recent adaptive duplications : ace-1 in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Evolution. 68, 7: 2092-2101. 87. Assogba B, Djogbénou L, Saizonou J, Milesi P, Djossou L, Djegbe I, Oumbouke W, Chandre F, Baba-Moussa L, Weill M and Makoutodé M, (2014) Phenotypic effects of concomitant insensitive acetylcholinesterase (ace-1R) and knockdown resistance (kdrR) in Anopheles gambiae: a hindrance for insecticide resistance management for malaria vector control. Parasit. Vectors 7: 548. 86. Atyame CM, Labbé P, Dumas E, Milesi P, Charlat S, Fort P, Weill M. (2014). Wolbachia divergence and the evolution of cytoplasmic incompatibility in Culex pipiens. PLoS One. 9 (1):e87336. 85. Zélé F, Nicot A, Berthomieu A, Weill M, Duron O, Rivero A. (2014). Wolbachia increases susceptibility to Plasmodium infection in a natural system. P. Roy. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 281, 1779, 20132837. 84. Dumas E, Atyame CM, Milesi P, Fonseca DM, Shaikevich EV, Unal S, Makoundou P, Weill M, Duron O. (2013). Population structure of Wolbachia and cytoplasmic introgression in a complex of mosquito species. BMC Evol Biol. 3;13(1):181. 83. Pocquet N, Milesi P, Makoundou P, Unal S, Zumbo B, Atyame CM, Darriet F, Dehecq JS, Thiria J, Bheecarry A, Iyaloo DP, Weill M, Chandre F, Labbé P. (2013). Multiple Insecticide Resistances in the Disease Vector Culex p. Quinquefasciatus from Western Indian Ocean. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 21;8(10):e77855. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077855. 82. Duron O, Bernard J, Atyame CM, Dumas E, Weill M. (2012). Rapid evolution of Wolbachia incompatibility types. P. Roy. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 279: 4473-4480. 81. Alout H, Labbé P, Berthomieu A, Berthomieu A, Djogbenou L, Leonetti J-P, Fort P, Weill M. (2012). Novel AChE Inhibitors for Sustainable Insecticide Resistance Management. PLoS One., 7: e47125. 80. Fort P, Albertini A, Van-Hua A, Berthomieu A, Roche S, Delsuc F, Pasteur N, Capy P, Gaudin Y, Weill M. (2012) Fossil rhabdoviral sequences integrated into arthropod genomes: ontogeny, evolution and potential functionality. Mol. Biol. Evol. 29(1): 381-390. 79. Osta MA, Rizk ZJ, Labbé P, Weill M, Knio K. (2012) Insecticide resistance to organophosphates in Culex pipiens complex from Lebanon. Parasit Vectors 5: 132. 78. Atyame CM, Pasteur N, Dumas E, Tortosa P, Tantely ML, Pocquet N, Licciardi S, Bheecarry A, Zumbo B, Weill M, Duron O. (2011) Cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means of controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5 (12) e1440. 77. Peery A, Sharakhova M V, Antonio-Nkondjio C, Ndo C, Weill M, Simard F, Sharakhov I V. (2011) Improving the population genetics toolbox for the study of the African malaria vector Anopheles nili: microsatellite mapping to chromosomes. Parasit. Vectors 4:202 doi:10.11861756-3305-4-202. 76. Atyame CM, Delsuc F, Pasteur N, Weill M, Duron O. (2011) Diversification of Wolbachia endosymbiont in the Culex pipiens mosquito. Mol. Biol. Evol. 28(10): 2761-2772. 75. Alout H, Labbé P, Pasteur N, Weill M. (2011) High incidence of ace-1 duplicated haplotypes in resistant Culex pipiens mosquitoes from Algeria. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 41: 29-35. 74. Atyame C, Duron O, Tortosa P, Pasteur N, Fort P & Weill M. (2011) Multiple Wolbachia determinants control the evolution of cytoplasmic incompatibilities in Culex pipiens mosquito populations. Mol. Ecol. 20: 286-298. 73. Duron O, Raymond M, Weill M. (2011) Many compatible Wolbachia strains coexist within natural populations of Culex pipiens mosquito. Heredity. 106: 986-993. 72. Djogbénou L, Pasteur N, Akogbéto M, Weill M, Chandre F. (2011) Insecticide resistance in the Anopheles gambiae complex in Benin: a nationwide survey. Med. Vet. Entomol. 25:256-267. 71. Rivero A, Vézilier J, Weill M, Read A F & Gandon S. (2010) Insecticide control of vector-borne diseases: When is insecticide resistance a problem? PLoS Pathog. 6 : e1001000. 70. Tortosa P, Charlat S, Labbe P, Dehecq JS, Barre H & Weill M. (2010) Wolbachia age-sex-specific density in Aedes albopictus: A host evolutionary response to cytoplasmic incompatibility? PLoS One. 5:e9700. 69. Djogbenou L, Pasteur N, Bio-Bangana S, Baldet T, Irish SR, Akogbeto M, Weill M &, Chandre F. (2010) Malaria vectors in the Republic of Benin: Distribution of species and molecular forms of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Acta Tropica. 114: 116-122. 68. Tantely ML, Tortosa P, Alout H, Berticat C, Berthomieu A, Rutee A, Dehecq JS, Makoundou P, Labbe P, Pasteur N & Weill M. (2010) Insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes from La Reunion Island. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 40: 317-324. 67. Echaubard P, Duron O, Agnew P, Sidobre C, Noël V, Weill M & Michalakis Y. (2010) Rapid evolution of Wolbachia density in insecticide resistant Culex pipiens. Heredity. 104:15-19. 66. Alout H, Labbé P, Berthomieu A, Pasteur N & Weill M. (2009) Multiple duplications of the rare ace-1 mutation F290V in Culex pipiens natural populations. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 39:884-891. 65. Khajehali J, Van Leeuwen T, Grispou M, Morou E, Alout H, Weill M, Tirry L, Vontas J & Tsagkarakou A. (2009) Acetylcholinesterase point mutations in European strains of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) resistant to organophosphates. Pest. Manag. Sci. 66:220-228. 64. Djogbenou L, Labbé P, Chandre F, Pasteur N & Weill M. (2009) Ace-I duplication in Anopheles gambiae: a challenge for malaria control. Malaria J. 18:8:70. 63. Bouquier N, Vignal E, Charrasse S, Weill M, Schmidt S, Leonetti JP, Blangy A & Fort P. (2009) A cell active chemical GEF inhibitor selectively targets the Trio/RhoG/Rac1. Chem. Biol. 16:657-666. 62. Ben Cheikh R, Berticat C, Berthomieu A, Pasteur N, Ben Cheikh H & Weill M. (2009) Genes conferring resistance to organophosphorous insecticides in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) from Tunisia. J. Med. Entomol. 46:523-530. 61. Alout H, Weill M. (2008) Amino-acid substitutions in acetylcholinesterase 1 involved in insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Chem. Biol. Interact. 175:138-141. 60. Tortosa P, Courtiol A, Moutailler S, Failloux A.-B & Weill M. (2008) Chikungunya-Wolbachia interplay in Aedes albopictus. Insect Mol. Biol. 17:677-684. 59. Huchard E, Weill M, Cowlishaw G, Raymond M & Knapp LA. (2008) Polymorphism, haplotype composition, and selection in the Mhc-DRB of wild baboons. Immunogenetics. 60:585-598. 58. Djogbénou L, Chandre F, Berthomieu A, Dabiré R, Koffi A, Alout H & Weill M. (2008) Evidence of introgression of the ace-1® mutation and of the ace-1 duplication in West African Anopheles gambiae s. s. PLoS One. 3:e2172. 57. Ben Cheikh R, Berticat C, Berthomieu A, Pasteur N, Ben Cheikh H & Weill M. (2008) Characterization of a novel high-activity esterase in Tunisian populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens. J. Econ. Entomol. 101:484-491. 56. Alout H, Djogbénou L, Berticat C, Chandre F & Weill M. (2008) Comparison of Anopheles gambiae and Culex pipiens acetycholinesterase 1 biochemical properties. Comp. Biochem. Phys. B, 150:271-277. 55. Berticat C, Bonnet J, Duchon S, Agnew P, Weill M & Corbel V. (2008) Costs and benefits of multiple resistance to insecticides for Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. BMC Evol. Biol. 8:104-112. 54. Labbé P, Berticat C, Berthomieu A, Unal S, Bernard C, Weill M & Lenormand T. (2007) Forty years of erratic insecticide resistance evolution in the mosquito Culex pipiens. PLoS Genet. 16;3 (11) e205. 53. Cui F, Weill M, Berthomieu A, Raymond M & Qiao CL. (2007) Characterization of novel esterases in insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol., 37:1131-1137. 52. Alout H, Berthomieu A, Cui F, Tan Y, Berticat C, Qiao C-L & Weill M. (2007) Different amino-acid substitutions confer insecticide resistance through acetylcholinesterase 1 insensitivity in Culex vishnui and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) from China. J. Med. Entomol. 44:463-469. 51. Djogbénou L, Weill M, Hougard JM, Raymond M, Akogbéto M & Chandre F. (2007) Characterization of insensitive acetylcholinesterase (ace-1R) in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): resistance levels and dominance. J. Med. Entomol. 44:805-810. 50. Duron O, Fort P & Weill M. (2007) Influence of aging on cytoplasmic incompatibility, sperm modification and Wolbachia density in Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Heredity 98:368-374. 49. Cui F, Qiao CL, Shen BC, Marquine M, Weill M & Raymond M. (2007) Genetic differentiation of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in China. Bull. Entomol. Res. 3:291-297. 48. Duron O, Boureux A, Echaubard P, Berthomieu A, Berticat C, Fort P & Weill M. (2007) Variability and expression of ankyrin domain genes in Wolbachia infecting the mosquito Culex pipiens. J. Bacteriol. 189:4442-4448. 47. Alout H, Berthomieu A, Hadjivassilis A & Weill M. (2007) A new amino-acid substitution in acetylcholinesterase 1 confers insecticide resistance to Culex pipiens mosquitoes from Cyprus. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 37:41-47 46. Labbé P, Berthomieu A, Berticat C, Alout H, Raymond M, Lenormand T & Weill M (2007) Independent duplications of the acetylcholinesterase gene conferring insecticide resistance in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Mol. Biol. Evol. 24:1056-1067. 45. Huchard E, Cowlishaw G, Raymond M, Weill M & Knapp LA. (2006) Molecular study of Mhc-DRB in wild chacma baboons reveals high variability and evidence for trans-species inheritance. Immunogenetics. 58:805-816. 44. Huchard E, Martinez M, Alout H, Douzery EJ, Lutfalla G, Berthomieu A, Berticat C, Raymond M & Weill M. (2006) Acetylcholinesterase genes within the Diptera: takeover and loss in true flies. P. Roy. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 273:2595-604. 43. Cui F, Raymond M, Berthomieu A, Alout H, Weill M & Qiao CL. (2006) Recent emergence of insensitive acetylcholinesterase in Chinese populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera : Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 43:878-883. 42. Duron O, Bernard C, Unal S, Berthomieu A, Berticat C & Weill M. (2006) Tracking factors modulating cytoplasmic incompatibilities in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Mol. Ecol. 15: 3061-3071. 41. Cui F, Lin L-F, Qiao C-L, Xu Y, Marquine M, Weill M & Raymond M. (2006) Insecticide resistance in Chinese populations of the Culex pipiens complex through esterase overproduction. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 120:211-220. 40. Duron O & Weill M. (2006) Wolbachia infection influences the development of Culex pipiens embryo in incompatible crosses. Heredity 96:493-500. 39. Coisy-Quivy M, Sangüesa-Ferrer J, Weill M, Johnson D. S, Donnay J-M, Hipskind R, Fort P & Philips A. (2006) Identification of Rho GTPases implicated in terminal differentiation of muscle cells in ascidia. Biol. Cell 98:577-588. 38. Duron O, Labbé P, Berticat C, Guillot S, Raymond M, Rousset F & Weill M. (2006) High Wolbachia density correlates with cost of infection for insecticide resistant Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Evolution 60:303-314. 37. Maury B, Martinand-Mari C, Chambon J-P, Soulé J, Degols G, Sahuquet A, Weill M, Berthomieu A, Fort P, Mangeat P & Baghdiguian S. (2006) Fertilization regulates apoptosis of Ciona intestinalis extra-embryonic cells through thyroxine (T4)-dependent NF-kappaB pathway activation during early embryonic development. Dev. Biol. 289:152-65. 36. Duron O, Fort P & Weill M. (2006) Hypervariable prophage WO sequences describe an unexpected high number of Wolbachia variants in the mosquito Culex pipiens. P. Roy. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 273:495-502. 35. Weill M., Philips A., Chourrout D., & Fort P. (2005) The caspase family in urochordates: distinct evolutionary fates in ascidians and larvaceans. Biol. Cell 97:857-66. 34. Duron O, Lagnel J, Raymond M, Bourtzis K, Fort P & Weill M. (2005) Transposable element polymorphism of Wolbachia in the mosquito Culex pipiens: evidence of genetic diversity, super-infection and recombination. Mol. Ecol. 14:1561-1573. 33. Sharakhov I., Braginets O., Grushko O., Cohuet A., Guelbeogo M. W., Bocollini D., Weill M., Sagnon N’F., Fontenille D., Yan G. & Besansky N. (2004) A microsatellite physical map of the African human malaria vector Anopheles funestus. J. Heredity 95:29-34. 32. Weill M, Malcolm C, Chandre F, Mogensen K, Berthomieu A, Marquine M & Raymond M. (2004) The unique mutation in ace-1 giving high insecticide resistance is easily detectable in mosquito vectors. Insect Mol. Biol. 13:1-7. 31. Weill M, Berthomieu A , Berticat C, Lutfalla G, Nègre V, Pasteur N, Philips A, Leonetti J-P, Fort P& Raymond M. (2004) Insecticide resistance: a silent base prediction. Curr. Biol. 14:R552-R553. 30. Weill M., Lutfalla G., Mogensen K., Chandre F., Berthomieu A., Berticat C., Pasteur N., Phillips A., Fort, P. & Raymond, M. (2003) Insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Nature 423:136-137. 29. Annan Z., Kengne P., Berthomieu A., Antonio-Nkondjo C., Rousset F., Fontenille D. & Weill M. (2003) Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers from the mosquito Anopheles moucheti, malaria vector in Africa. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3:56-58. 28. Berthomieu A., Kengne P., Awono-Ambene P., Raymond M., Fontenille D.& Weill M. (2003) Isolation and characterization of microsatellite DNA markers in the malaria vector Anopheles nili. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3:394-396. 27. Guillemin ML, Severini C, Berthomieu A, Raymond M & Weill M. (2003) Isolation and characterization of microsatellite DNA markers in the malaria vector Anopheles sacharovi. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3:338-340. 26. Weill M., Severini C., Guillemin M-L., Berticat C., Berthomieu A., Rousset F. & Raymond M. (2003) Isolation and characterization of microsatellite DNA markers in the malaria vector Anopheles maculipennis. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3:417-419. 25. Philips A, Blein M, Robert A, Chambon JP, Baghdiguian S, Weill M & Fort P. (2003) Ascidians as a vertebrate-like model organism for physiological studies of Rho GTPase signalling. Biol. Cell 95:295-302. 24. Berticat C.,Rousset F., Raymond M., Berthomieu A. & Weill M. (2002) High Wolbachia density in insecticide resistant mosquitoes. P. Roy. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 269:1413-1416. 23. Cohuet A., Simard F., Berthomieux A., Raymond M., Fontenille D. & Weill M. (2002) Isolation and characterization of microsatellites DNA markers in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus. Mol. Ecol. Notes 2:498-500. 22. Weill M., Fort P., Berthomieu A., Dubois M.-P., Pasteur N. & Raymond M. (2002) A novel acetylcholinesterase gene in mosquitoes codes for the insecticide target and is non-homologous to the ace gene in Drosophila. P. Roy. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 269:2007-2016. 21. Weill M., Marquine M., Berthomieux A., Dubois M.-P., Bernard C., Qiao C.L & Raymond M. (2001) Identification and characterization of novel organophosphate detoxifing esterase alleles in the Guangzhou area of China. J. Am. Mosquito Control Association 17:238-244. 20. Raymond M., Berticat C., Weill M., Pasteur N. & Chevillon C. (2001) Insecticide resistance in the mosquito Culex pipiens: what have we learned about adaptation. Genetica 113:287-296. 19. Weill M., Berticat C., Raymond M. & Chevillon C. (2000) Quantitative PCR to estimate the number of amplified esterase genes in insecticide resistant mosquitoes. Anal. Biochem. 285:267-270. 18. Weill M., Chandre F., Brengues C., Manguin C., Akogbeto M., Pasteur N., Guillet P. & Raymond M. (2000) The kdr mutation occurs in the Mopti form of Anopheles gambiae s.s. through introgression. Insect Mol. Biol. 9:451-455. 17. Souriau C., Gracy J., Chiche L. & Weill M. (1999) Direct selection of EGF mutants displayed on filamentous phage using cells overexpressing EGF receptor. Biol. Chem. 380:451-458. 16. Souriau C., Fort P., Roux P., Hartley O., Lefranc M-P. & Weill M. (1997) A simple luciferase assay for signal transduction activity detection of Epidermal Growth Factor displayed on phage. Nucleic Acid Res. 25:1585-1590. 15. Hua T. D., Fulcrand-Rolland V., Lazaro R., Viallefont Ph., Lefranc M-P.& Weill M. (1996) Detection of enzyme activity at trace level : a new perspective for the direct screening for active catalytic antibodies. Tetrahedron Lett. 37:175-178. 14. Hua T. D., Lamaty F., Souriau C., Fulcrand-Rolland V., Lazaro R., Viallefont Ph., Lefranc M-P. & Weill M. (1996) Specific recognition of a tetrahedral phosphonamidate transition state analogue group by a recombinant antibody Fab fragment. Amino Acids 10:167-172. 13. Riechmann L. & Weill M. (1993) Phage display and selection of a site-directed randomized single-chain antibody Fv fragment for its affinity improvment. Biochemistry US 32:8848-8855. 12. Weill M., Zhang X.M., Bernard F., Lefranc G. & Lefranc M.-P. (1992) A rare genetic variant of the T cell receptor joining segment TRGJ1. Human Genet. 88, 355. 11. Riechmann L., Weill M. & Cavanagh J. (1992) Improving the antigen affinity of an antibody Fv-fragment by protein design. J. Mol. Biol. 224:913-918. 10. Bensmana M., Mattei M.G. & Lefranc M.-P. (1991) Localization of the human T-cell receptor gamma locus (TCRG) at 7p14-p15 by in situ hybridization. Cytogenet. Cell. Genet. 56:31-32. 9. Bensmana M., Chuchana P., Lefranc G. & Lefranc M.-P. (1991) Sequence of the CH1 and hinge-CH2 exons of the human immunoglobulin IGHA2 A2m(2) allele : comparison with the non allelic IGHA genes. Cytogenet. Cell. Genet. 56:128. 8. Bensmana M., Bernard F., Zhang X. M., Chuchana P., Lefranc M.-P. & Lefranc G. (1991) RFLP detected by the transmembrane exon probe of the human immunoglobulin IGHA genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 19:5098. 7. Schiff C., Bensmana M., Guglielmi P., Milili M., Lefranc M.-P. & Fougereau M. (1990) The immunoglobulin l-like gene cluster (14.1, 16.1, Fl1) contains gene(s) selectively expressed in pre-B cells and is the human counterpart of the mouse l5 gene. Int. Immunol. 2:201-207. 6. Bensmana M. & Lefranc M.-P. (1990) Gene segments encoding membrane domains of the human immunoglobulin gamma 3 and alpha chains. Immunogenet. 32:321-330. 5. Ghanem N., Bensmana M., Dugoujon J-M, Constans J., Lefranc M.-.P & Lefranc G. (1989) BamHI and SacI RFLPs of the human immunoglobulin IGHG genes with reference to the Gm polymorphism in African people : evidence for a major polymorphism. Hum. Genet. 83:37-44. 4. Ghanem N., Buresi C., Moisan J-P., Bensmana M., Chuchana P., Huck S., Lefranc G. & Lefranc M.-P. (1989) Deletion, insertion and restriction site polymorphism of the T cell receptor gamma variable locus in French, Lebanese, Tunisian and Black African populations. Immunogenet. 30:350-358. 3. Ghanem N., Dugoujon J-M, Bensmana M., Huck S., Lefranc M.-P. & Lefranc G. (1988) Restriction fragment haplotypes in the human immunoglobulin IGHG locus and their correlation with the Gm polymorphism. Eur. J. Immunol. 18:1067-1072. 2. Ghanem N., Dariavach P., Bensmana M., Chibani J., Lefranc M.-P. & Lefranc G. (1988) Polymorphism of immunoglobulin lambda constant region genes in population from France, Lebanon and Tunisia. Exp. Clin. Immunogenet. 5:186-195. 1. Bensmana M., Huck S., Lefranc G. & Lefranc M.-P. (1988) The Human immunoglobulin pseudo-gamma IGHGP gene shows no major structural defect. Nucleic Acids Res. 16:3108.